John Batchelor Show Author: Fighting for MacArthur: The Navy and Marine Corps’ Desperate Defense of the Philippines by John Gordon

There are many ways to study the history of the Bataan campaign, and books are a primary means of learning. Another way is through multimedia, whether documentary and other film, images, and even voice, through interviews of veterans and also of historians who study the campaign.

If you have never listened to radio show host John Batchelor, you are in for a treat. His show’s news magazine format allows for a relatively generous amount of time to allow useful discussion of a variety of subjects, as compared to other radio shows.

Radio personality John Batchelor (Courtesy JBS)

American author and host of The John Batcheklor Show radio news magazine.   (Courtesy JBS)

Batchelor also has great discussions with authors of books, including many historical books. One of pertinence to this web log is a book by John Gordon titled Fighting for MacArthur: The Navy and Marine Corps’ Desperate Defense of the Philippines, published by the naval Institute Press in 2011. Although the Bataan Campaign is not the focus of the book, it is certainly a key part of the account, given the naval and Marine role in the defense of Bataan, and chapters 6 through 11 cover actions related to Bataan. A description of the book as follows:

The cover of John Gordon's Fighting for MacArthur. (Source:  Amazon)

The cover of John Gordon’s Fighting for MacArthur. (Source: Amazon)

“Drawing on a rich collection of both American and newly discovered Japanese sources as well as official records and wartime diaries, Gordon chronicles the Americans’ desperate defense of the besieged islands. For the first time the story of the Navy and Marine Corps in the 1941-42 Philippine campaign is told in a single volume. He also explains why the Navy’s relationship with General MacArthur became strained during this campaign, and remained so for the rest of the war. Gordon offers much new information about the campaign during which the Navy and Marines, fighting in what was largely an Army operation, performed some of their most unusual missions of the entire Pacific War. Sailors fought as infantrymen alongside their Marine comrades at Bataan and on the island fortress of Corregidor. Sailors also manned Army heavy coast artillery batteries during the epic artillery duel between Corregidor and the Japanese guns that were massed on Bataan following the fall of the Peninsula. In these pages, Gordon recounts the only time in history when the Marine Corps lost a regiment in combat when the 4th Marines surrendered on Corregidor, and includes the most detailed account of the attack on Cavite that has ever been published.”

http://www.amazon.com/Fighting-MacArthur-Desperate-Defense-Philippines/dp/1612510574

You can listen to John Batchelor’s 40-minute interview of author John Gordon from 27 September 2015 on podcast. The Bataan portion runs from about the 26 minute mark to the 31-minute mark, and discusses the naval role in the Battle of the Points (e.g. Longoskawayan Point, chapter 8 of the book):

http://johnbatchelorshow.com/podcasts/sun-92715-jbs-author-fighting-macarthur-navy-and-marine-corps-desperate-defense-philippines

If you are interested in a more detailed discussion of this book, the US Army Heritage and Education Center (USAHEC) has shared a 66-minute long presentation by John Gordon about his book which you can view on YouTube.  The Bataan portion is discussed between the 35 minute 42-minute marks. View it at:

Reference

“John Batchelor,” Wikipedia entry, at:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Batchelor

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They tied knots in his tail!

Theodor Seuss Geisel, better-known as Dr. Seuss, well-known author of children’s books, and somewhat of a political subversive by his own admission, patriotically aided the American war effort in World War II working for the US Army.

At left, Theodor Seuss Geisel-Army as a US Army field grade officer in World war II.  At right, Dr. Seuss in later years. (Pinterest)

At left, Theodor Seuss Geisel-Army as a US Army field grade officer in World war II. At right, Dr. Seuss in later years. (Pinterest)

Among other written and illustration creations, in February, 1942, he penned a cartoon about the progress of the Bataan campaign, shown here, one of over 400 which he drew. To paraphrase a famous Dr. Seuss ditty in Fil-Am Bataan lingo, “I do not like this invader cat’s plan, I do not like him Uncle Sam-I-am!”

11259975_10207095804705973_2066021916006257448_nThe knots on the tail of the cartoon tiger may be representative of the successful Fil-Am movement to Bataan in late December, 1941, and of such clashes as the battles on the Abucay Line, the Points, and the Pockets. Even though Imperial Japan eventually won the campaign, it only did so at great cost in men, materiel and time, as well as the face they lost as compared to the other successful efforts of Japanese forces in those early months of the war.

Had Dr. Seuss drawn an update of the cartoon figure in April of 1942, it would likely have had even more knots, perhaps a loss of weight reflecting the sickness and disease on the peninsula, and a lot of scratches.

And to think if the Fil-Am forces on Bataan had been properly provisioned, let alone fully equipped, Dr. Seuss would surely have needed to draw a new cat!
References

“Dr. Seuss,” Wikipedia article, at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr._Seuss

Bataan cartoon, World War 2 is Not Boring, site at: http://worldwar2isnotboring.tumblr.com/

“Dr. Seuss went to War,” at: http://library.ucsd.edu/speccoll/dswenttowar/index.html

Dr. Seuss & WWII – Analyzing Political Cartoons, National World War II Museum lesson plan, at: http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-teachers/lesson-plans/pdfs/dr-seuss-lesson-plan.pdf

Photo of Dr. Seuss in uniform, at: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/510595676476600314/

National POW MIA Recognition Day 2015

Friday, 18 September 2015. National POW MIA Recognition Day in the United States.

pow_mia_poster_2015From the Defense POW MIA Accounting Agency, this information on the observance:

“Observances of National POW/MIA Recognition Day are held across the country on military installations, ships at sea, state capitols, schools and veterans’ facilities. It is traditionally observed on the third Friday in September each year. This observance is one of six days throughout the year that Congress has mandated the flying of the National League of Families’ POW/MIA flag. The others are Armed Forces Day, Memorial Day, Flag Day, Independence Day and Veterans Day.

The flag is to be flown at major military installations, national cemeteries, all post offices, VA medical facilities, the World War II Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, the official offices of the secretaries of state, defense and veterans affairs, the director of the selective service system and the White House.”

For those who fought the enemy on Bataan, there are the POWs and still many MIAs to remember. As this web log writer types, he cannot say or share with you how many MIAs there still are from the Bataan campaign of 1942. Perhaps someone out there knows this.

There is at least one group or activity that is trying to help resolve the status of the missing from the Bataan campaign. The public element of the effort is the web log of Bataan Missing, and from their web log is the following description:

“This site is dedicated to the thousands of American servicemen who were imprisoned and died of starvation, disease and mistreatment on the Bataan Death March and in Japanese prison camps in the Philippines during World War II.

After the war their remains were disinterred from the camp cemeteries and those who could be positively identified were returned to their families. Those remains which were not identified were buried as unknowns; their families told only that the remains of their loved one were not recoverable. The records were then classified and hidden from public view for more than sixty years. The headstones said they were known only to God – actually they were known to God and the US Army and the Army wasn’t talking.

We are happy to share the information we have collected on WWII MIA’s and encourage other MIA families to contact us at BataanMissing@gmail.com.”

For more information, this web log can be found at: http://bataanmissing.com/

Hopefully with the efforts of Bataan Missing and others searching to resolve the many cases of Fil-Am missing, more of those missing from Bataan will be found and returned to their families to help bring closure to the emptiness in their hearts. On this National POW/MIA Recognition Day let us remember the brave warrior who gave their all for our countries – hand salute!

150917-D-TE668-005

Reference

National POW/MIA Recognition Day, poster, at: http://www.dpaa.mil/Families/Posters.aspx

A Cost of Liberation over Bataan, 12 April 1945

This web log can sometimes be of assistance to those seeking information with a Bataan connection. One such opportunity to possibly be of help emerged on 13 September 2015 when another web log writer on WordPress linked their writing to a Bataan Campaign posting from 20 January 2015 titled “Triumph and Tragedy over the Abucay Line.” They wrote:

“Our oldest son, Wayne (Wayne A. Walton), was a pilot in World War II. He was piloting an A-20 Attack Bomber when his squadron was making a low-flying attack over Bataan at the time he was apparently shot down. It was first reported that his plane was seen to hit the ocean and explode. This report was later denied, and we never learned what really happened to him.”
https://bigreunion.wordpress.com/2015/09/04/autobiography-of-arthur-walton-may-1971/

The air action over the Abucay Line in January, 1942, has little to do with what turns out to the loss of an A-20 aircraft over Bataan in February 1945, but since it happened over Bataan, it is worth a brief exploration.

In the case of Wayne A. Walton, from Murray, Utah, on 12 February 1945 he was a Second Lieutenant assigned to the 8th Bombardment Squadron of the 3rd Bombardment Group (often referred to as the 3rd Attack Group), a veteran outfit in Fifth Air Force. He was stationed at an airfield at San Jose on Mindoro Island, participating in the liberation of the Philippine Islands from Imperial Japan.

Douglas A-20G Havoc light bomber/attack aircraft at the National Museum of the United States Air Force painted to represent "Little Joe" of the Fifth Air Force’s 389th Bomb Squadron, 312th Bomb Group, with 150 missions.  The aircraft is very similar to the A-20H, which had uprated engines.  (US Air Force photo)

Douglas A-20G Havoc light bomber/attack aircraft at the National Museum of the United States Air Force painted to represent “Little Joe” of the Fifth Air Force’s 389th Bomb Squadron, 312th Bomb Group, with 150 missions. The aircraft is very similar to the A-20H, which had uprated engines. (US Air Force photo)

On that day, Walton was the pilot of a Douglas A-20H-10-DO Havoc light bomber/attack plane, serial number 44-506, along with radioman/gunner S/Sgt Joseph C. Thomas from New Jersey. His aircraft was one of ten the squadron sent out in the morning to attack Japanese positions in the Cabcaben area on the Bataan peninsula.

The aircraft were led by the group commanding officer, Lt Col Ellis, and the aircraft attacked in three-plane elements. From the squadron’s official history (page 9): “The entire coastal area was thoroughly strafed and bombs struck along the road in the Cabcaben area and in Lokanin. Slight, light and accurate A/A fire was encountered. 2 planes were holed. Propaganda leaflets were dropped. One plane of the original 10 failed to return from the target and 2 planes were sent to look for it. These two planes landed safely at base 45 minutes after the first 7, after an unsuccessful search. A 90th Squadron sighting reported one 8th Squadron airplane was seen to crash in the water and burn 600 yards north of Limay village. No crew was seen to get out.”
The incident occurred at 0910 local time, according to the squadron casualty report filed on it showing Lt. Walton as a battle casualty killed in action (page 29 of the Feb 45 history).

According to the mission summary in the history (page 9), the formation expended 36 500-lb bombs and 18 250-lb bombs, which equates to nine A-20 aircraft, each carrying a typical bomb load for an A-20 of four 500-lb bombs in the bomb bay and a single bomb carried under each wing. Perhaps Lt. Walton’s aircraft did not bomb before it was struck and was reportedly seen to crash.

A USAAF A-20 Havoc of the 13th Bomb Squadron, 3rd Bomb Group, strafes a much battered Japanese Maru offshore at Tadji, New Guinea, in 1943.  (Courtesy Warbird Information Exchange.org)

A USAAF A-20 Havoc of the 13th Bomb Squadron, 3rd Bomb Group, strafes a much battered Japanese Maru offshore at Tadji, New Guinea, in 1943.  Note the aircraft bomb bay doors are opened and it is carrying a bomb beneath each wing.  (Courtesy Warbird Information Exchange.org)

There is no posted history for the 90th Bomb Squadron or the 3rd Bomb Group that might disclose more information on this apparent combat loss. A check of the group’s 13th Bomb Squadron history for February 1945 revealed this squadron sent 10 x A-20H against Cabcaben on 12 February, but makes no mention of any aircraft losses. The 89th Bomb Squadron also made attacks against the Cabcaben area on that day and the squadron history makes no mention of aircraft losses.

A check of the Aviation Archaeological Investigation & Research database listing for Missing Air Crew Reports (MACRs) for February, 1945 only shows an A-20 Havoc loss for the 417th Bomb Group on 12 February 1945, serial number 43-22249, although the absence of an individual aircraft serial number lost in action in this database is not necessarily an indication of an anomaly – there are other aircraft losses in action from other units that do not show up in this MACR database, according to this web log writer’s experience.

A check of the AAIR database for overseas accidents in February 1945 came up negative as well, no mention of 44-506 in the entire month.

Based on these reports, it appears that Lt. Walton and S/Sgt Thomas were hit by antiaircraft fire and crashed into Manila Bay just off Limay. An aircraft hitting the sea at speed like this evokes memory of that well-known A-20 crash off the New Guinea coast, with little left to show after impact, as seen in this case:
http://www.thisdayinaviation.com/tag/douglas-a-20-havoc/

Although perhaps there is no new information to share on the loss of Lt. Walton and his A-20 Havoc on 12 February 1945, hopefully this information and the sources listed below will be helpful to anyone wishing to further explore this matter.

Both 2nd Lt. Walton and S/Sgt Thomas are remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Manila American Cemetery in Manila, Philippines. Both were awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal for their service and sacrifice. Seventy years after the liberation of the Philippines, we salute their valor and sacrifice at Bataan.

Tablets of the Missing at the Manila American Cemetery in the Philippines.  (Courtesy Lost-at-sea-memorials.com)

Tablets of the Missing at the Manila American Cemetery in the Philippines. (Courtesy Lost-at-sea-memorials.com)

References:

American Battle Monument Commission, casualty database entry for Wayne A. Walton, at: https://www.abmc.gov/search-abmc-burials-and-memorializations/detail/WWII_139337#.VfZRL5dOS70

American Battle Monument Commission, casualty database entry for Joseph C. Thomas, at: https://www.abmc.gov/search-abmc-burials-and-memorializations/detail/WWII_137010#.VfZeQpdOS70

A-20 Havoc, Wikipedia page, at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_A-20_Havoc

Joe Baugher USAAF aircraft serial numbers for 1944, at: http://www.joebaugher.com/usaf_serials/1944_1.html

3rd Attack Group website, 8th Bomb Squadron page, at: http://8thattacksquadron.yolasite.com/

8th Bomb Squadron honored list of squadron killed and missing: http://8thattacksquadron.yolasite.com/resources/Documents/MIA%20-%20KIA%20%201917%20-%201991%20%208th%20Squadron.pdf

8th Bomb Squadron history for February, 1945, at: http://8thattacksquadron.yolasite.com/resources/Documents/1945/February%201945%20%208th%20Squadron.pdf

13th Bomb Squadron history for February 1945, at: http://13thattacksquadron.yolasite.com/resources/Documents/1945/February%201945%20%2013th%20Squadron.pdf

89th Bomb Squadron history for February 1945, at: http://89thattacksquadron.yolasite.com/resources/DOCUMENTS/History_1945/February%201945%20%2089th%20Squadron.pdf

Aviation Archaeological Investigation & Research (AAIR) MACR database for February 1945, at: http://www.aviationarchaeology.com/src/MACRmonthly/45FebMACR.htm

Aviation Archaeological Investigation & Research (AAIR) accident database, overseas list for February, 1945, at: http://www.aviationarchaeology.com/src/AARmonthly/Feb1945O.htm
Images:

A-20G at AF Museum, picture at: http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/Visit/MuseumExhibits/FactSheets/Display/tabid/509/Article/196256/douglas-a-20g-havoc.aspx

A-20 with bombs beneath wing, at: http://www.warbirdinformationexchange.org/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=52066

Tablets of the Missing at the Manila American Cemetery, at: http://lost-at-sea-memorials.com/?p=1986

The Other Side

While those of us who read in the English language have many resources in books, papers, reports and other documents, to learn and study on the Bataan campaign.

For the most part, all these publications and papers offer great insight and detail on the campaign and its participants. However, there is perhaps a resource lacking, and that would be ion materials from the Japanese perspective. The language barrier is one issue. The other is the question as to what there is available, given that many of the Japanese participants in the battle were killed in the campaign and/or the years of warfare which followed.

But in looking around, it is possible to find some English language translations of Japanese accounts. One such example is found on the “American POWs of Japan” web log site, at:

http://americanpowsofjapan.blogspot.com/

Specifically, under the “Websites” listing on the left hand side of the website is available there is the “Battle of Bataan: A Japanese Officer’s Memoirs,” the account of Imperial Japanese Army Capt. Kumai Toshimi, who was a Second Lieutenant in the 142nd Infantry Regiment of the 65th Infantry Brigade.

Kumai was a replacement who joined the unit in the Philippines in March of 1942, and fought in the battles of early April. Initially in the reserve, his unit, the 2nd Machinegun Platoon of 40 members in the 1st Machinegun Company of the 1st Battalion, was soon in action.

Imperial Japanese Army soldiers firing a Type 92 (1932) 7.7-mm. heavy machine gun, gas-operated and air-cooled. This was the standard Japanese heavy machine gun.  (Courtesy Allworldwars.com)

Imperial Japanese Army soldiers firing a Type 92 (1932) 7.7-mm. heavy machine gun, gas-operated and air-cooled. This was the standard Japanese heavy machine gun. (Courtesy Allworldwars.com)

By the end of the final offensive on Bataan, his platoon was much reduced in strength, down to just 14-15 effective, if bone-tired, fighting men. Lt. Kumai himself was carrying a machinegun barrel during movements to new positions by the time the fighting ended.

It makes one wonder how much fighting capacity the Japanese had left by the time of the General King’s decision to surrender. Were the Fil-Am forces unknowingly on the verge of causing another major upset in the Japanese timetable for conquest?

There are a number of interesting observations in Kumai’s memoir, such as the difference in field sanitation practices between the Fil-Am and Japanese forces, and the remarkable engineering capabilities of the Fil-Am side.

Kumai’s 23-page account was written in 1968, and can be read at:

http://www.kumaibuki.com/Kumai_memoir.pdf

In any study of military history, it is important to understand the perspectives of the various sides in the conflict. Although it is difficult, it is possible to find some useful perspectives translated from another language. This perspective is essential for understanding the motivations, and experience of the other side in a conflict.

So a hat tip to Asia Policy Point, a Washington, DC-based nonprofit organization that studies the US policy relationship with Japan and Northeast Asia, who created the “American POWs of Japan” web log and research project. Thank you for sharing some insights on the adversary of the Fil-Am forces on Bataan.

Image: IJA machine gunners, at: http://www.allworldwars.com/The-War-Against-Japan-Pictorial-Record.html

Tiger of Malaya tamed in the Philippines

Seventy years ago, 2 September 1945, the symbolic end of the Pacific War in the Philippines took place when General Yamashita Tomoyuki, the “Tiger of Malaya,” walked out of the mountains of northern Luzon and surrendered.

General Yamashita, Commander, Japanese forces, "Tiger of Malaya,” and his staff walk down the trail to U.S. forces in northern Luzon, occupied by Company ‘I’, 128th Infantry Regiment, 32nd Division. Photographer unknown. US Army, via NARA, III-SC 662462)

General Yamashita, Commander, Japanese forces, “Tiger of Malaya,” and his staff walk down the trail to U.S. forces in northern Luzon, occupied by Company ‘I’, 128th Infantry Regiment, 32nd Division. Photographer unknown. US Army, via NARA, III-SC 662462)

This was the day Japan formally surrendered, ending World War II in a somber ceremony aboard the battleship Missouri in Sagami Wan, near Tokyo.

General Yoshijiro Umezu, Chief of the Army General Staff, signs the Instrument of Surrender on behalf of Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, on board USS Missouri (BB-63), 2 September 1945. Watching from across the table are Lieutenant General Richard K. Sutherland and General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. Representatives of the Allied powers are behind General MacArthur. Photographed from atop Missouri's 16-inch gun turret # 2.  (US Navy)

General Yoshijiro Umezu, Chief of the Army General Staff, signs the Instrument of Surrender on behalf of Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, on board USS Missouri (BB-63), 2 September 1945. Watching from across the table are Lieutenant General Richard K. Sutherland and General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. Representatives of the Allied powers are behind General MacArthur. Photographed from atop Missouri’s 16-inch gun turret # 2. (US Navy)

The subdued event in the mountains of Luzon was a far cry from Yamashita’s incredible success in the Malaya campaign of 1941 – 1942, when as Commander of the Imperial Japanese 25th Army, he delivered a stunning defeat on the British Empire and presided over what has been called the British Army’s greatest humiliation – the surrender of Singapore.

British troops surrender following the fall of Singapore.  (Courtesy http://militaryhistory.about.com)

British troops surrender following the fall of Singapore. (Courtesy http://militaryhistory.about.com)

While Fil-Am forces were battling the Japanese invaders on Luzon and then Bataan, the British forces in Malaya were fighting their own defensive battles against marauding Japanese forces. Singapore was the bulwark of the British Empire in the east, and just the name uttered brought images of a mighty, impregnable fortress to mind.

But Singapore was not all that mighty, and opportunities to make it stronger had been squandered in the years before the war and even after the war began. Even the arrival of a complete division, the 18th Infantry Division, just a couple of weeks before the fall of Singapore was not enough to prevent failure. Despite their superior numbers (some 85,000 to the Japanese 32,000) the British were outmaneuvered, out-imagined, demoralized, and lost the will to fight. On 14 February 1942 they surrendered to a blustering, bluffing Yamashita, who had come quite close to failing before the British lost their nerve.

Lt. Gen. Yamashita Tomoyuki, the Japanese Commander, faces Lt. Gen. A. E. Percival, British Commander, during the final meeting to arrange the surrender of Singapore.  (Courtesy http://ww2today.com)

Lt. Gen. Yamashita Tomoyuki, the Japanese Commander, faces Lt. Gen. A. E. Percival, British Commander, during the final meeting to arrange the surrender of Singapore. (Courtesy http://ww2today.com)

The Fil-Am performance in Bataan is quite the contrast in the Allied response to Japan’s assaults, also reflected in the fate of the commanders. General Yamashita, the “Tiger of Malaya” grew in reputation, though General Tojo reassigned him to obscure duty in Manchuria in an apparent signal of Tojo’s disfavor with him.

Compare this to General Homma Masaharu, who was delayed in capturing the Philippines by Fil-Am resistance. Homma lost status and became the fall guy for the difficulties and losses in the Philippine campaign. He completely retired from the Imperial Japanese Army in August, 1943.

photograph ofLt. Gen. Masaharu Homma, commander of the Japanese 14th Army forces in the Philippine campaign of 1941-1942.  (Courtesy awesomestories.com)

photograph ofLt. Gen. Masaharu Homma, commander of the Japanese 14th Army forces in the Philippine campaign of 1941-1942. (Courtesy awesomestories.com, via corregidorisland.com)

But Yamashita’s fate was also tied to the Philippines. After the fall of Tojo’s government following the loss of the Mariana Islands in the summer of 1944, Yamashita was brought out of Manchuria and ordered to command Japanese Army forces in the Philippines in the fall of 1944. He had little time to prepare for the American return to the islands, arriving in Manila only ten days before the 20 October American landings at Leyte.

Yamashita was over-ruled by Imperial HQ in the strategy to use in the Philippines as well, and was directed to make an all-out effort at Leyte. He did, but the effort failed in the face of superior forces, poor preparation, logistical problems and difficult weather. On Luzon, he lost control over Japanese forces in Manila, undermined by insubordinate juniors, resulting in a catastrophic battle that killed 100,000 Filipino civilians and destroyed much of the “Pearl of the Orient.”

An American soldier in Manila is rescuing an injured Filipino girl during the Battle of Manila, February 1945. Defying orders from General Yamashita, Japanese Marines in Manila went on a barbaric killing spree. MacArthur refused to bomb the city.  The Japanese who refused to surrender had to be rooted out building by building. Civilians were not just caught in the crossfire. The Japanese actually sought out civilians to kill.  An estimated 100,000 civilians perished, most were killed by the Japanese on purpose. (Courtesy MacArthur Memorial via histclo.com)

An American soldier in Manila is rescuing an injured Filipino girl during the Battle of Manila, February 1945. Defying orders from General Yamashita, Japanese Marines in Manila went on a barbaric killing spree. MacArthur refused to bomb the city. The Japanese who refused to surrender had to be rooted out building by building. Civilians were not just caught in the crossfire. The Japanese actually sought out civilians to kill. An estimated 100,000 civilians perished, most were killed by the Japanese on purpose. (Courtesy MacArthur Memorial via histclo.com)

After nearly a year of disaster and defeat, the once proud Tiger of Malaya was tamed in the Philippines. Though he stubbornly held out in northern Luzon, once the surrender of Japan to the Allies was formalized he complied.

General Tomoyuki Yamashita surrenders to Colonel Ernest A. Barlow, 32D Division Chief of Staff, at Kiangan, Luzon, on 2 Sep. 1945.  (Courtesy 32nd-division.org)

General Tomoyuki Yamashita surrenders to Colonel Ernest A. Barlow, 32nd Infantry Division Chief of Staff, at Kiangan, Luzon, on 2 Sep 1945. (Courtesy 32nd-division.org)

In late 1945, an American military tribunal in Manila found Yamashita responsible for the actions of men under his command in the destruction of Manila and atrocities against civilians in the Philippines and Singapore. He was hanged to death on 23 February 1946 at Los Baños, Laguna, prison camp, 30 miles south of Manila.

General Yamashita during post-war trials, probably in a hallway outside the courtroom, circa October 1945.  (Family of Harry E. Clarke, via http://ww2db.com)

General Yamashita during post-war trials, probably in a hallway outside the courtroom, circa October 1945. (Family of Harry E. Clarke, via http://ww2db.com)

His counterpart from the early war Philippine campaign, General Homma, was extradited from Japan to the Philippines by order of General MacArthur and tried before the Manila tribunal; he was found responsible for the conduct of his men against Fil-Am prisoners during the brutal Bataan Death March and atrocities at Camp O’Donnell and Cabanatuan. Homma was shot to death by firing squad on 3 April 1946 at Los Baños, nearly four years after the fall of Bataan. The joint Fil-Am firing squad was ordered by MacArthur, and seen by military men as a less dishonorable fate than hanging. Perhaps this was because the attrocities his men committed were largely against military personnel, unlike the mass slaughter of civilians in Manila by Yamashita’s subordinates in 1945.

Japanese General Masaharu Homma and his defense counsels as seen on December 18, 1945. Pictured (L to R) Seated at Table: Captain George W. Ott, Lieutenant Leonard Nataupsky, Major John H. Skeen, Jr., (chief defense counsel, Japanese General Masaharu Homma, Captain Frank Coder. Standing (L to R) Lieutenant Haig Kantarian, Captain George A. Furness, Lieutenant Roert L. Pelz, and Lieutenant Robert Polaski. (John Paxton via Truman Library)

Japanese General Masaharu Homma and his defense counsels as seen on December 18, 1945. Pictured (L to R) Seated at Table: Captain George W. Ott, Lieutenant Leonard Nataupsky, Major John H. Skeen, Jr., (chief defense counsel, Japanese General Masaharu Homma, Captain Frank Coder. Standing (L to R) Lieutenant Haig Kantarian, Captain George A. Furness, Lieutenant Roert L. Pelz, and Lieutenant Robert Polaski. (John Paxton via Truman Library)

References

IJA 25th Army, Wikipedia entry at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twenty-Fifth_Army_%28Japan%29

Tomoyuki Yamashita, Wikipedia entry, at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomoyuki_Yamashita

Masaharu Homma, Wikipedia entry, at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaharu_Homma

The Fall of Singapore – the British Army’s Greatest Humiliation,” at: http://www.historyinanhour.com/2010/02/15/fall-of-singapore/

The Sack of Manila, at: http://www.battlingbastardsbataan.com/som.htm
Images

Yamashita walking out to surrender, at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomoyuki_Yamashita#/media/File:General_Yamashita_Surrenders.jpg

Surrender aboard USS Missouri, at:  http://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/us-people/m/macarthur-douglas-in-japan-august-1945-june-1950/80-g-332701.html

Surrender in Singapore: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/p/World-War-Ii-Battle-Of-Singapore.htm

Homma in field uniform, at: https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/General-Homma-Photograph

GI saves Manila girl, at: http://histclo.com/essay/war/ww2/camp/pac/phil/lib-luz.html

Yamashita at surrenders in Luzon, at: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/32ww2-12.html

Yamashita during trial, at: http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=2529

Defense counsels with General Homma, at: http://www.trumanlibrary.org/photographs/view.php?id=43745